Condicional tipo 3

Formação

Nas orações condicionais tipo 3, o tempo verbal da oração "if" é o "past perfect", enquanto que na oração principal ele pode ser o "perfect conditional" ou o "perfect continuous conditional".

Oração "If" (condição) Oração principal (resultado)
If + past perfect "perfect conditional" ou "perfect continuous conditional"
If this thing had happened that thing would have happened.

Assim como ocorre em todas as orações condicionais, a ordem dos elementos não é fixa. Você poderá ter de reorganizar os pronomes e ajustar a pontuação quando alterar a ordem das orações, mas o significado continuará idêntico.

Exemplos
  • If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
  • You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
  • You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
  • If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
  • I would have believed you if you hadn't lied to me before.
  • If you hadn't lied to me before, I would have believed you.

Funções

O "type 3 conditional" indica uma condição impossível no passado e seu resultado provável no passado. Essas orações são verdadeiramente hipotéticas e irreais, pois agora é muito tarde para que a condição ou seu resultado existam. As orações condicionais tipo 3 quase sempre implicam um sentimento de arrependimento. A realidade representa o oposto ou contrário daquilo que a oração indica. Nas orações condicionais tipo 3, o marco temporal é o passado, e a situação é hipotética.

Exemplos
  • If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (mas não me esforcei o bastante, por isso, não passei no exame.)
  • If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (mas eu não sabia que você viria, por isso, não fiz um bolo.)
  • I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (mas você não me ligou, por isso, não fiquei feliz.)

Nas orações condicionais tipo 3, também é possível utilizar verbos modais (modal verbs) na oração principal, em vez de "would", para expressar o grau de certeza, permissão ou uma recomendação sobre o resultado.

Exemplos
  • If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam.
  • You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
  • If he called you, you could go.
  • If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.
Contrações

Tanto "would" quanto "had" podem ser contraídos para a forma "'d", a qual pode causar confusão, caso você não domine as orações condicionais tipo 3. Lembre-se destas 2 regras:
1. "would" nunca aparece na oração "if", portanto, se "'d" aparecer nessa oração, ele deve estar abreviando o termo "had".
2. "had" nunca aparece antes de "have", portanto, se "'d" aparecer em um pronome logo antes de "have", ele deve estar abreviando o termo "would".

Exemplos
  • If I'd known you were in hospital, I'd have visited you.
  • If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.
  • I'd have bought you a present if I'd known it was your birthday.
  • I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
  • If you'd given me your e-mail, I'd have written to you.
  • If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.

O tempo verbal "perfect conditional"

O "perfect conditional" de qualquer verbo é composto por três elementos:
"would" + "have" + "past participle"
"Have" seguido pelo "past participle" é também utilizado em outras construções. Denomina-se "perfect infinitive".

Sujeito + would + have + past participle
He would have gone
They would have stayed
To Go no "perfect conditional"
Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa Interrogativa Negativa
I would have gone I wouldn't have gone Would I have gone? Wouldn't I have gone?
You would have gone You wouldn't have gone Would you have gone? Wouldn't you have gone?
He would have gone He wouldn't have gone Would he have gone? Wouldn't he have gone?
She would have gone She wouldn't have gone Would she have gone? Wouldn't she have gone?
We would have gone We wouldn't have gone Would we have gone? Wouldn't we have gone?
They would have gone They wouldn't have gone Would they have gone? Wouldn't they have gone?